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It also has the Graduate Theological Union, one of the largest religious studies institutions in the world.
Berkeley is one of the most socially liberal cities in the United States.
Today, this is noted by signage on Interstate 80, which runs along the San Francisco Bay shoreline of Berkeley.
The De Anza Expedition led to establishment of the Spanish Presidio of San Francisco at the entrance to San Francisco Bay (the Golden Gate), which is due west of Berkeley.
To this end, they laid out a plat and street grid that became the basis of Berkeley's modern street plan.
Their plans fell far short of their desires, and they began a collaboration with the State of California that culminated in 1868 with the creation of the public University of California.
According to the Centennial Record of the University of California, "In 1866…at Founders' Rock, a group of College of California men watched two ships standing out to sea through the Golden Gate.
One of them, Frederick Billings, thought of the lines of the Anglo-Irish Anglican Bishop George Berkeley, 'westward the course of empire takes its way,' and suggested that the town and college site be named for the eighteenth-century Anglo-Irish philosopher." The College of California's College Homestead Association planned to raise funds for the new campus by selling off adjacent parcels of land.
The rest of the land was surveyed and parceled out to various American claimants (See Kellersberger's Map).A horsecar ran from Temescal in Oakland to the university campus along what is now Telegraph Avenue. By the 1870s, the Transcontinental Railroad reached its terminus in Oakland.In 1876, a branch line of the Central Pacific Railroad, the Berkeley Branch Railroad, was laid from a junction with the mainline called Shellmound (now a part of Emeryville) into what is now downtown Berkeley.Evidence of their existence in the area include pits in rock formations, which they used to grind acorns, and a shellmound, now mostly leveled and covered up, along the shoreline of San Francisco Bay at the mouth of Strawberry Creek.Other artifacts were discovered in the 1950s in the downtown area during remodeling of a commercial building, near the upper course of the creek.